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Title :佐渡金銀山 : 吹上海岸石切場跡調査報告書
Authors :宇佐美, 亮
Publisher :新潟県佐渡市教育委員会
Issue Date :Mar-2009
Journal Title :佐渡金銀山遺跡調査報告書
Volume :11
Start Page :1
End Page :37
Abstract :1 吹上海岸石切場跡は、佐渡市下相川に所在し、現況は一般公共海岸である。 2 遺跡は、下相川地内の海岸線標高0~20mの露岩・岩礁部に立地し、規模は吹上I区で東西約60m、南北約150m、同II区で東西約150m、南北約10mを測る。 3 遺跡は、相川金銀山・相川市街地へ多量の鉱山臼(上磨)・石垣石等を供給するために石材が切り出された石切場跡である。 4 調査は、保存目的の遺跡範囲内容確認のため、平成19年度から平成20年度にかけて実施した。調査面積は17,800㎡である。 5 調査の結果、遺跡のほぼ全域から石材を切り出す際の遺構である矢穴・矢穴痕・ノミ跡等が検出された。 6 確認された遺構は、石材の切り出しが行われた範囲である採石域23ヵ所、矢穴・矢穴痕206ヵ所、ノミ跡14ヵ所、刻印1ヵ所である。 7 遺構の分布状況をみると、海岸線の露岩部分や急峻な崖、波打ち際に至る様々な場所に矢穴・矢穴痕が見られ、質のよい石材を求めて採石が行われていたことがわかる。 8 風化・磨耗等の理由により、矢穴等の遺構の正確な数量は不明であるが、現存する矢穴・矢穴痕の中には約12~15㎝を超えるものがあり、江戸時代初期~前期にかけてすでに採石が行われていたことがわかる。また、遺跡全体でみると長辺が平均約9~12㎝前後のものが多く、江戸時代前期~中期にかけて採石作業が盛んに行われていたと推測される。 9 I・II区ごとに矢穴口長辺の法量を比較すると、I区では15㎝以上のもののほかに9~12㎝前後のものが多いが、II区では15㎝以上のものは見られず、9㎝未満のものが多い。一方で近代以降の削岩機痕はI・II区ともに見られる。このような法量の違いから、採石の開始時期には年代差があり、I区が江戸時代初期、II区が江戸時代前期~中期の段階で石切場が開かれ、いずれも近代まで採石が続けられたものと考えられる。 10 現存する遺構から石材の切り出し方法をみると、ノミにより周囲に溝を彫り石材下部に矢穴を彫ってクサビを打ち込むことで石材を得る技法と、クサビの打ち込みのみで石材を得る技法が見られる。 11 石切場に隣接して建立されている鎮目奉行墓は、吹上産の石材を使用した自然石石塔の墓と布目積石垣の基檀部よりなる。
1. The remains of Fukiage Coast Quarry are at Shimoaikawa in Sado City. The present state of the area is an ordinary public coast. 2. The remains are located along the coast at Shimoaikawa ; the area is mostly covered with exposed rocks and rock reefs, 0 to 20m from the sea level. The Fukiage Site I stretches approximate 60m east to west and 150m south to north, while the Fukiage Site II extends 150m east to west and 10m south to north. 3. The sites were quarries where stone materials were quarried to supply plenty of mine mortars (upper parts), pieces of stone walls and other applications to Aikawa gold and silver mines and the urban district of Aikawa. 4. The sites were researched from 2007 to 2008 with a view to deciding the boundaries of the remains to conserve them. The researched area was 17,800㎡. 5. The research showed that almost every section of the area had wedge quarry holes, traces of such holes and chisel marks, typical for quarry remains. 6. The identified remains include quarrying spaces (23) where rocks were quarried, wedge quarry holes and their traces (206), chisel marks (14) and an engraved mark (1). 7. Observing distribution of remains, I can assume that they were pursing better quality for rocks, because wedge quarry holes and their traces can be found at various locations including exposed rocks along the coast line, steep cliffs and water's edges. 8. It is not possible to determine the exact number of wedge quarry holes due to weathering and wearing. However, the fact that larger wedge quarry holes including traces with the longest side being approximate 12 to 15cm have been found suggests quarry was already being done in the beginning and at the early stages of the Edo Period. That the majority of wedge quarry holes including traces all over the sites have the longest side of 9 to 12cm suggests quarry was being done very actively at the early and middle stages of the Edo Period. 9. When comparing Site I with Site II in terms of the longest dimension of wedge quarry holes, I found that Site I has holes of 9 to 12cm as well as holes of 15cm or larger, while Site II has many holes of less than 9cm without holes of 15cm or lager. On the other hand, I found that both sites have evidences of machine drills being used, typical for the modern periods. Judging from the differences of typical hole dimensions, I can conclude that Site I was opened at the early stage of the Edo period and Site II was opened at the early state to middle stage of the Edo period and quarry at the both sites continued up to modern periods. 10. Regarding how to split the rocks, observation of the existing remains shows that there were two techniques ; one was to use the chisel to carve grooves around the target rock and wedge quarry holes at the bottom of the rock for wedges to be driven in ; and the other was to use only wedges to obtain rock materials. 11. The tobm of Magistrate Shizume constructed next to a quarry space consists of an upper part (stone pagoda) and a platform which was made by laying rocks in a fabric tecture pattern (straight horizonally) ; both the upper part and the platform were made of natural rocks produced locally at Fukiage.
Type Local :Technical Report
Language :jpn
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/10623/26092
Appears in Collections:10 調査報告書

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